Banks peninsula

The Banks Peninsula or Horomaka  
By Lily-Grace and Rachael
Geography:

The Port Hills are located in Cashmere, Christchurch. It's po box is 8022. Did you know that the Gondola is part of the Banks Peninsula also known as the Port Hills?


In the old days there were just Maori in New Zealand. The Banks Peninsula or Horomaka were formed by two volcanoes twelve million years ago. The mass of the volcano stretched up to over 1,176 square Km! It was jutting from Canterbury coast to Pegasus Bay and Canterbury point. The highest point Mount Herbert Paikai (920m of height) this overlooks Lyttelton Harbour. There is a small valley which is called Little River. Akaroa was the largest volcano eruption. The mass of the volcanic hills stretched up to over 1,165 SQ Km. Banks Peninsula is a Peninsula of volcanic origin on the east coast of the South Island, New Zealand. It has an area of approximately 1,150 kilometres (440 square) and encom passes two large harbours and many smaller bays. The South Island’s largest city, Christchurch, is immediately north of the Peninsula.

Here is the Geography history, the oldest rocks are estimated to be around 220 million years old that goes back to the Triassic period with dinosaurs! In the Cretaceous period about 80 million years ago Gebbies Pass was formed and it is one of the oldest rock exposed for this time! For about the next 65 to 20 million years rocks are still undiscovered and missing. It is believed that most of these sunk under the sea. The first flow of Lyttelton lava happened around 11 million years ago.
Banks Peninsula is situated in about the middle of the east coast of the South Island on the margin of the Canterbury plains                              
                           
   
Maori Legends                                
Maori had a few different perceptions of how the Peninsula was formed. There was one legend which was about Tuterakiwhanoa. Tuterakiwhanoa was scraping from undersea caves which formed the hills and valleys we see today.                                      
                                           
Maui and his whanau were resting their weary bodies, when an evil giant came out from the land, Maui fought him and the giant got trapped into the sun, then Maui made the mountains to keep the monster stuck.  When he stirred in the summer he was captured once again and Maui and the monster had a massive battle forming Pigeon Bay. Then later on when there was a massive tremor this finally formed the lake and the giant would rest there forever.                                      
                                                                           
What are the Maori names and what do they mean?              
Wainui-Big bay or Big water                                
 Nga Tahu -wanting inland                                  
Horomaka-Banks Peninsula                                  
Tagngata-iti  -little man                                   .
 Wainui is also a very popular place for holidaymakers                                      
                                     
This is the history of people on Banks Peninsula:          
Watahi-were the first Maori tribe to make a camp.
Katimamoe-was the second tribe.                          
Ngai Tahu, they overtook both tribes in the 17th century.                  
Captain James Cook was the first European to see the peninsula          
He said it was “a circular figure of a very broken uneven surface."  Cook did not explore the land but sailed away. In the 1830s it became a popular whaling station. So what does this mean for us now? What is human activity doing? People Maori and English alike started living on the Peninsula at least 700 years ago. The Maori originally came from tropical Polynesian Islands far North. In the waka, they had brought rats, which took no time to hunt bird eggs and many other things a scavenger would eat. For the first few centuries, food included a lot of Moa, Adzebill and Goose all of which started living without wings so we can presume flightless creatures. After one-third of our Peninsulas forest was cut and burned by people. When that kicked in it is believed over 30 birds species died out probably the easiest one to remember is the Moa. The seal population also reduced considerably. The Ngai Tahu lost over 80% of their land and about 20% was stabilized back in the Treaty of Waitangi. But they lost 60% of their land with a steadily growing tribe. Since 1950 sheep and cattle have roamed most of the land.

                             
In 1850 the first ships started to arrive to make an English colony. The first ships to arrive in Lyttelton were....                                      

Sir Gregor                                      
Randolph
Cressy                                  
Charlotte Jane  

Animals:                                      
The marine and underwater animals for Banks Peninsula are...                                      
Hector's dolphin knower by the Maori as Upoko Hue. The hector's dolphin is critically endangered. These are the main animals at life in the water however
 
 
                                     
 
                             
Many other animals come to visit...                          
Such as                                      
cohort/southern right whales,                              
Hoiho/yellow-eyed penguins,
 korora/white- flippered penguins come ashore and nest here,                                      
sakura/beaked whales and keno/fur seals.  



while great white sharks are summer visitors.      

This is the marine life of the islands                              
Spotted shags are not uncommon.

Jewelled lizards are native to banks peninsula      
kereru NZ native pigeons

     
kereru NZ native pigeons
 
                                 
the main livestock that live around here are…
Sheep


Lamas

Alpacas: Something interesting about some Banks Peninsula farms is that some farms have herds with over 100 alpacas!

Last but not least Cows.  




Vegetation and Fauna:
History of Fauna and Vegetation….
                         
20 million years of inland existence. The subalpine element pushed back limited sights of upland rock crops.The Pleistocene Period (Nothofagus) formed a barrier of sea level. The humans that arrived about a thousand years ago drastically changed how the land looked. Many species became extinct such as the Australian Black swan. Did you know New Zealand is actually from a small chunk of Australia and the Moa and Kiwis along with many other species, are actually from  Australia but evolved over time! But somehow flying species had a better chance surviving probably the most well known one today would be the Tui.



Present vegetation and fauna today…
Stripped of most of its ancient forests and dominated by grassland, Banks Peninsula is nevertheless an attractive landscape of vigorously moulded hills, variously sized valleys, two large inlets, along freshwater lake and many bays. About 7,0000 hectares of the Peninsula is farm land.
 
The fauna in Banks Peninsula is unique not so much the grasslands as they aren't the right habitat. The Banks Peninsula cellars flora however is much more diverse. Some of the species that live here are Flatworms, Roundworms, Earthworms, Leeches, Molluscs, Crustaceans, Onychophorans, Millipedes, Centipedes, Spiders, Mites, and Harvestmen. There are also a lot of rare fish on the lakes and sea surrounding the Peninsula. Birds to are not uncommon.                              

 The end!


                 
                                     
                                     
                                     

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